In theory, getting files onto that Linux virtual server you just set up should be easy, right? But, there's no full web browser. (Lynx doesn't count.) And if it's a cloud server, you have to set up some sort of central file server or sharing system.
Sometimes the fastest way is ShareByLink.
You can share the file from your desktop and then download it on the server using wget. Because ShareByLink streams the file, you do not need to wait for a big download to complete.
Check out our team page to meet the people behind ShareByLink.